September 28

St Luke’s Church, Buranda | Remedial Building Services

St Luke’s Catholic Church, located in Buranda Quee [...]


September 28

Myer Centre, Brisbane | Remedial Building Services

Brisbane’s Queen Street Mall boasts the longest he [...]


September 28

Macleay Street Apartments, Potts Point | Remedial Building Services

Located at the top of Potts Point, this majestic b [...]


September 28

The dangerous side of Covid lockdowns for Building Repair | Remedial Building Services | Remedial Building Services

COVID19 has changed lives forever. One area we hav [...]


September 28

10 Reasons Why Front End Developers Choose AngularJS

SSI is a web development company.

Technology is increasingly becoming an indispensable part of our daily lives, be it professional or personal spheres of our activities. There are hardly any businesses that do not leverage technology to further their prospects and advance business opportunities. There are multitudes of app development technologies and frameworks, each replete with advantages and thriving communities. However, a well-established web development company would suggest an ideal app development methodology using a specific programming language or framework, depending on the business requirements. 

September 28

PEB Manufacturing in Assam | Faith PEB

Leading Pre-Engineered Building manufacturer in As [...]

Leading Pre-Engineered Building manufacturer in Assam, India. Manufacturer of quality Pre-Engineered Building.Prefabricated Industrial shed, Factory manufacturer in India. Faith PEB group is leading in warehouse, shed, godown, factory shed.



September 28

Security And Safety On-Arrival | ETS Risk Management

The Host could have in the vehicle an ‘Emergency” [...]


The Host could have in the vehicle an ‘Emergency” Abaya-cover Insider Threat Consultancy, in case the female traveler has to leave the vehicle before arriving at the hotel (Upon Request). After arrival, and at Immigration: All new Visa arrivals will be subjected to Bio metrics (Finger Printing and Digital Portrait), and there is a special lane for that. It has also happened in the past that external drives/USB memory devices have been temporarily confiscated and checked, so it is also important that all software/content installed on laptops or devices is licensed proprietary software.



September 28

Darlings Connected To Ahmedabad Escort Service Maintain A Hygienic Environment

Being skilled enough in their approach towards the [...]

At any of the locations you want our babes to reach, they would be doing so without any hesitations. Ahmedabad call girls are having a good amount of experience over the years and are considered to be amongst the finest of all in the list of men. Visit now :- ahmedabad call girls ### russian ahmedabad escorts ### high profile call girls ahmedabad ### vadodara call girls ### surat call girls ### nashik call girls ### bodakdev call girls ### prahlad nagar call girls ### sg highway call girls ### thaltej call girls ### vaishnodevi circle call girls ### rajkot call girls### sanand call girls ### narol call girls ### ellis bridge call girls ### jagatpur call girls ### gandhinagar call girls### bharuch call girls ### ahmedabad escorts ### ahmedabad call girls ###

September 28

Dissertation results writing services

At some point in your academic career, you will have to write a professional dissertation. This is the most important assignment in any university that should be tackled diligently and professionally because any mistake may cost you the academic reputation, get help from dissertation results writing services
September 28

Essential lean six sigma concepts and tools

Lean Six Sigma Online at Purdue University

The Six Sigma certification helps in validating professionals who are skilled in identifying risks, errors, or defects in a business process and removing them. Getting a Six Sigma Certification usually requires individuals to have a certain level of experience and testify their proficiency. Six Sigma tools are defined as the problem-solving tools used to support Six Sigma and other process improvement efforts. The Six Sigma expert uses qualitative and quantitative techniques to drive process improvement.


Read More About...


Full Name: Lean Six Sigma Online at Purdue University

Contact Number:888-390-0499

Contact E-mail:LSSonline@purdue.edu

Facebook:https://www.facebook.com/PurdueOnlineLSSPM/

Twitter:https://twitter.com/purdueprofdev



September 28

PEB Manufacturing in India | Faith PEB

Faith PEB is a leading PEB Manufacturing Company i [...]

Faith PEB is a leading PEB Manufacturing Company in Gujarat, India, Pre engineered building (PEB) Structural steel fabrication Company with 18 years of experience Constructing more than 3000 (PEB) steel Buildings in Gujarat, India. We cover all types of Industries like Pharmaceutical, Electronic, Automotive, Electrical, Warehousing, Industry, Food, Chemical, Power, Steel Industry etc.

September 28

Calcium Hypochlorite Manufacturer

We at Aquatick, are Calcium Hypochlorite manufactu [...]

For most of us, the idea of water chlorination is just standard, but it hasn’t always been this way. In the mid-to-late 1800s, chlorine had been used sporadically to help control infection in hospitals and drinking water. But, standard water treatment did not begin in the U.S. until the early twentieth century, when increasing cases of waterborne illnesses prompted many large cities to begin large scale filtration of water supplies.


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Still, filtration alone wasn’t enough to reduce widespread illnesses. In 1914, a standard was enacted that limited drinking water to a maximum of two coliforms per 100 mL. This new standard ushered in the modern age of disinfection in the U.S. chlorination, virtually eliminating waterborne epidemics and increasing life expectancy by 50 percent.


Today, with increasing pollution and new regulations, it has become more and more challenging to meet all of the requirements for safe disinfection with just one treatment. Using multiple technologies for disinfection in a layered approach is often necessary.


For example, a surface water potable water treatment facility may use chlorine dioxide at the head of the plant to gain disinfection credit without creating chlorine by-products, then apply chlorine to the finished water to maintain a residual through the distribution system. Read more about the many means of disinfection below.


Choosing the Right Disinfection

Today, there are several effective technologies available for the disinfection of water and wastewater, and each has its advantages and disadvantages. Understanding the treatment process goals is fundamental to choosing the right disinfection option.


Chlorine Gas

Used in water treatment plants since the early 1900s, chlorine gas is essentially pure chlorine, typically delivered in pressurized 150-pound cylinders, one-ton containers or rail cars directly to the site in a usable form. It is generally the most cost-effective, efficient and easiest method of disinfecting with chlorine.


Vacuum-operated Solution Feed Systems

These systems enhance the safety of feeding chlorine gas. The control modes used for this process are typically flow proportioning, residual control, or compound loop (flow plus residual).


Commercial Sodium Hypochlorite

Commercial sodium hypochlorite is a liquid disinfection that is manufactured at approximately 12.5 to 15 percent chlorine by weight with a pH greater than 11. The delivery systems for it include the storage tank, chemical dosing pumping system with associated valves and piping, and a control method such as flow control, residual control, or compound loop (flow + residual). 


Classified as a hazardous chemical, bulk sodium hypochlorite requires secondary containment and hazardous chemical manifests. Although more expensive (per pound) than chlorine gas or on-site hypochlorite generation, sodium hypochlorite is considered easier to maintain and operate. 


Bulk sodium hypochlorite concentration decays over time, and higher volumes are required to achieve the same result. Chlorate as a by-product is a concern for the expected new MCL of 210 ppb.


On-site Hypochlorite Generation (OSHG)

An OSHG system uses electrolysis to generate a nominal 0.8 percent solution of hypochlorite on-site as needed. A dilute brine solution passes through an electrolytic cell, converting the chloride ion from the salt to hypochlorite. 


The process typically uses three pounds of salt, two kW hours of electricity and 15 gallons of water to produce a pound of chlorine in 15 gallons of solution, the equivalent of the active chlorine present in one gallon of 12.5 percent bulk hypochlorite, or one pound of chlorine gas. OSHG systems have moderate maintenance requirements, producing chlorine at about 25 percent, 60 percent of the cost of bulk sodium hypochlorite per pound of chlorine produced, and is considered safer than transporting gas under pressure.


Chlorine Dioxide

Chlorine dioxide is generated by mixing acid or chlorine gas and sodium chlorite, with ejector water as an entrained gas to form a solution that is applied to the process. Because it cannot be compressed and liquefied for transportation, it is generated on-site close to its intended use. It is a strong oxidant and disinfectant across a wide pH range for both water and wastewater and does not react with ammonia to become a weaker disinfectant. This is important for plants where the water has a high ammonia content, often resulting in lower operating costs. Chlorine dioxide is frequently used in water treatment plants as a primary disinfectant early in the treatment process to prevent the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs).


On-site Chlorine Generation (OSCG)

Similar to OSHG, an OSCG system uses brine solution and membrane electrolysis to produce higher concentrations of hypochlorite up to 12 percent of chlorine gas, which is vacuum-educted to the point of application. On-site chlorine generation reduces transportation and delivery hazards associated with shipping commercial hypochlorite and eliminates transportation safety concerns of chlorine gas delivered in liquid (bulk) containers.


Ozone

Made of three oxygen atoms (O3), ozone is a powerful oxidant. It deteriorates rapidly to oxygen and is usually generated on-site using either air or pure oxygen. Ozone does not produce disinfection by-products (DBPs) and can be used as a primary disinfectant for water treatment to reduce THMs and DBPs. 


Ozone also is used for taste, odor and color control in potable water treatment, as well as Fe/Mn removal when THMs are a concern. Further, it is used to remove micropollutants, including pesticides, at disinfection dosages. Ozonation is typically not used for primary disinfection of wastewater effluent with high levels of suspended solids (SS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand, or total organic carbon since the cost of treatment can be relatively high in capital and power intensiveness.


Ultraviolet Light (UV)

Ultraviolet light energy at 254 nm wavelength is absorbed by the DNA of a microorganism, stopping the reproductive process and rendering it non-infective and microbiologically dead. UV systems operate at varying pressure and output, depending on the application, target pathogen and water quality involved. 


UV has most recently been used to treat wastewater effluent since regulations require more stringent chlorine discharge limits for various receiving streams. UV is effective in removing chlorine-resistant pathogens from drinking water, including Cryptosporidium, Giardia and various viruses that have proven to be resistant to traditional disinfection methods such as chlorine and filtration.


Calcium Hypochlorite

A solid tablet, calcium hypochlorite, is typically 60 percent available chlorine delivered via a tablet-feed system or a dilution tank in which the calcium hypochlorite is dissolved into a solution then dosed with a metering pump. It is commonly used in swimming pools. 


Because calcium hypochlorite is expensive per pound of chlorine and is difficult to dose in larger facilities accurately, it is typically used for smaller remote plants where other methods of chlorine feed are not feasible.


Chloramines

In the presence of ammonia, chlorine combines with the ammonia to form either mono-chloramine, di-chloramine, or tri-chloramine, depending on the ammonia-to-chlorine ratio. Mono-chloramine is a relatively weak disinfectant but maintains a very stable long-lasting residual in water and is therefore often used as a secondary disinfection method in systems with a long water age. 


Chloramine systems can be challenging to control, and operators must carefully monitor and maintain their dosing systems for maximum accuracy. Peracetic Acid (PAA) Peracetic acid (CH3CO3H) — also known as peroxyacetic acid, or PA — is a liquid that functions as a strong oxidizing agent, has an acrid odor and can also be used as a disinfectant. 


PAA is generally commercially available as an equilibrium mixture of 12-15 percent peracetic acid and 18-23 percent hydrogen peroxide. PAA is available in 330-gallon totes and, in bulk, requires stainless steel piping and is administered using a metering pump. Since PAA is a highly-effective bactericide, does not form DBPs, has a minimal dependency on pH and does not leave a residual, it has received significant consideration for the disinfection of wastewater effluent.


Treatments will be different for every situation and plant size. But, with a well-defined treatment process goal and experienced, knowledgeable partners working together, developing the most effective, simple and budget-conscious disinfection plan can truly be a painless process.


Choosing the Right Treatment System 

Whether it’s a new project or an upgrade to an existing plan, choosing the right water treatment system takes careful research and planning. Find out if an on-site sodium hypochlorite system is right for you. Contact Aquatick by JalAqua for additional product info or connect with a regional distributor today. 


We at Aquatick by Jal Aqua International, are Calcium Hypochlorite manufacturers, suppliers, importer & traders from India based. We have the best quality of Calcium Hypochlorite, with very competitive price. Our Calcium Hypochlorite is made with very high quality raw materials using all quality standards of the Industry.


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September 28

Calcium Hypochlorite Manufacturer

Jal Aqua International Calcium hypochlorite Manufa [...]

For most of us, the idea of water chlorination is just standard, but it hasn’t always been this way. In the mid-to-late 1800s, chlorine had been used sporadically to help control infection in hospitals and drinking water. But, standard water treatment did not begin in the U.S. until the early twentieth century, when increasing cases of waterborne illnesses prompted many large cities to begin large scale filtration of water supplies.


Calcium Hypochlorite |Calcium hypochlorite CAS 7778-54-3 | Water Treatment Chemicals | calcium hypochlorite uses |Calcium Hypochlorite manufacturer | Manufacturing Facilities For Calcium Hypochlorite | blogs on calcium hypochlorite | How Much Bleach To Use In Swimming Pools? |Benefits Of Bleach- Swimming Pool Water Treatment | Importance Of Chlorine – Hypochlorite 




Still, filtration alone wasn’t enough to reduce widespread illnesses. In 1914, a standard was enacted that limited drinking water to a maximum of two coliforms per 100 mL. This new standard ushered in the modern age of disinfection in the U.S. chlorination, virtually eliminating waterborne epidemics and increasing life expectancy by 50 percent.


Today, with increasing pollution and new regulations, it has become more and more challenging to meet all of the requirements for safe disinfection with just one treatment. Using multiple technologies for disinfection in a layered approach is often necessary.


For example, a surface water potable water treatment facility may use chlorine dioxide at the head of the plant to gain disinfection credit without creating chlorine by-products, then apply chlorine to the finished water to maintain a residual through the distribution system. Read more about the many means of disinfection below.


Choosing the Right Disinfection

Today, there are several effective technologies available for the disinfection of water and wastewater, and each has its advantages and disadvantages. Understanding the treatment process goals is fundamental to choosing the right disinfection option.


Chlorine Gas

Used in water treatment plants since the early 1900s, chlorine gas is essentially pure chlorine, typically delivered in pressurized 150-pound cylinders, one-ton containers or rail cars directly to the site in a usable form. It is generally the most cost-effective, efficient and easiest method of disinfecting with chlorine.


Vacuum-operated Solution Feed Systems

These systems enhance the safety of feeding chlorine gas. The control modes used for this process are typically flow proportioning, residual control, or compound loop (flow plus residual).


Commercial Sodium Hypochlorite

Commercial sodium hypochlorite is a liquid disinfection that is manufactured at approximately 12.5 to 15 percent chlorine by weight with a pH greater than 11. The delivery systems for it include the storage tank, chemical dosing pumping system with associated valves and piping, and a control method such as flow control, residual control, or compound loop (flow + residual). 


Classified as a hazardous chemical, bulk sodium hypochlorite requires secondary containment and hazardous chemical manifests. Although more expensive (per pound) than chlorine gas or on-site hypochlorite generation, sodium hypochlorite is considered easier to maintain and operate. 


Bulk sodium hypochlorite concentration decays over time, and higher volumes are required to achieve the same result. Chlorate as a by-product is a concern for the expected new MCL of 210 ppb.


On-site Hypochlorite Generation (OSHG)

An OSHG system uses electrolysis to generate a nominal 0.8 percent solution of hypochlorite on-site as needed. A dilute brine solution passes through an electrolytic cell, converting the chloride ion from the salt to hypochlorite. 


The process typically uses three pounds of salt, two kW hours of electricity and 15 gallons of water to produce a pound of chlorine in 15 gallons of solution, the equivalent of the active chlorine present in one gallon of 12.5 percent bulk hypochlorite, or one pound of chlorine gas. OSHG systems have moderate maintenance requirements, producing chlorine at about 25 percent, 60 percent of the cost of bulk sodium hypochlorite per pound of chlorine produced, and is considered safer than transporting gas under pressure.


Chlorine Dioxide

Chlorine dioxide is generated by mixing acid or chlorine gas and sodium chlorite, with ejector water as an entrained gas to form a solution that is applied to the process. Because it cannot be compressed and liquefied for transportation, it is generated on-site close to its intended use. It is a strong oxidant and disinfectant across a wide pH range for both water and wastewater and does not react with ammonia to become a weaker disinfectant. This is important for plants where the water has a high ammonia content, often resulting in lower operating costs. Chlorine dioxide is frequently used in water treatment plants as a primary disinfectant early in the treatment process to prevent the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs).


On-site Chlorine Generation (OSCG)

Similar to OSHG, an OSCG system uses brine solution and membrane electrolysis to produce higher concentrations of hypochlorite up to 12 percent of chlorine gas, which is vacuum-educted to the point of application. On-site chlorine generation reduces transportation and delivery hazards associated with shipping commercial hypochlorite and eliminates transportation safety concerns of chlorine gas delivered in liquid (bulk) containers.


Ozone

Made of three oxygen atoms (O3), ozone is a powerful oxidant. It deteriorates rapidly to oxygen and is usually generated on-site using either air or pure oxygen. Ozone does not produce disinfection by-products (DBPs) and can be used as a primary disinfectant for water treatment to reduce THMs and DBPs. 


Ozone also is used for taste, odor and color control in potable water treatment, as well as Fe/Mn removal when THMs are a concern. Further, it is used to remove micropollutants, including pesticides, at disinfection dosages. Ozonation is typically not used for primary disinfection of wastewater effluent with high levels of suspended solids (SS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand, or total organic carbon since the cost of treatment can be relatively high in capital and power intensiveness.


Ultraviolet Light (UV)

Ultraviolet light energy at 254 nm wavelength is absorbed by the DNA of a microorganism, stopping the reproductive process and rendering it non-infective and microbiologically dead. UV systems operate at varying pressure and output, depending on the application, target pathogen and water quality involved. 


UV has most recently been used to treat wastewater effluent since regulations require more stringent chlorine discharge limits for various receiving streams. UV is effective in removing chlorine-resistant pathogens from drinking water, including Cryptosporidium, Giardia and various viruses that have proven to be resistant to traditional disinfection methods such as chlorine and filtration.


Calcium Hypochlorite

A solid tablet, calcium hypochlorite, is typically 60 percent available chlorine delivered via a tablet-feed system or a dilution tank in which the calcium hypochlorite is dissolved into a solution then dosed with a metering pump. It is commonly used in swimming pools. 


Because calcium hypochlorite is expensive per pound of chlorine and is difficult to dose in larger facilities accurately, it is typically used for smaller remote plants where other methods of chlorine feed are not feasible.


Chloramines

In the presence of ammonia, chlorine combines with the ammonia to form either mono-chloramine, di-chloramine, or tri-chloramine, depending on the ammonia-to-chlorine ratio. Mono-chloramine is a relatively weak disinfectant but maintains a very stable long-lasting residual in water and is therefore often used as a secondary disinfection method in systems with a long water age. 


Chloramine systems can be challenging to control, and operators must carefully monitor and maintain their dosing systems for maximum accuracy. Peracetic Acid (PAA) Peracetic acid (CH3CO3H) — also known as peroxyacetic acid, or PA — is a liquid that functions as a strong oxidizing agent, has an acrid odor and can also be used as a disinfectant. 


PAA is generally commercially available as an equilibrium mixture of 12-15 percent peracetic acid and 18-23 percent hydrogen peroxide. PAA is available in 330-gallon totes and, in bulk, requires stainless steel piping and is administered using a metering pump. Since PAA is a highly-effective bactericide, does not form DBPs, has a minimal dependency on pH and does not leave a residual, it has received significant consideration for the disinfection of wastewater effluent.


Treatments will be different for every situation and plant size. But, with a well-defined treatment process goal and experienced, knowledgeable partners working together, developing the most effective, simple and budget-conscious disinfection plan can truly be a painless process.


Choosing the Right Treatment System 

Whether it’s a new project or an upgrade to an existing plan, choosing the right water treatment system takes careful research and planning. Find out if an on-site sodium hypochlorite system is right for you. Contact Aquatick by JalAqua for additional product info or connect with a regional distributor today. 


We at Aquatick by Jal Aqua International, are Calcium Hypochlorite manufacturers, suppliers, importer & traders from India based. We have the best quality of Calcium Hypochlorite, with very competitive price. Our Calcium Hypochlorite is made with very high quality raw materials using all quality standards of the Industry.


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September 28

Jal Aqua - Water Treatment Compund - Swimming Pool Water Treatment

Jal Aqua International is manufacturer of Water tr [...]

For most of us, the idea of water chlorination is just standard, but it hasn’t always been this way. In the mid-to-late 1800s, chlorine had been used sporadically to help control infection in hospitals and drinking water. But, standard water treatment did not begin in the U.S. until the early twentieth century, when increasing cases of waterborne illnesses prompted many large cities to begin large scale filtration of water supplies.


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Still, filtration alone wasn’t enough to reduce widespread illnesses. In 1914, a standard was enacted that limited drinking water to a maximum of two coliforms per 100 mL. This new standard ushered in the modern age of disinfection in the U.S. chlorination, virtually eliminating waterborne epidemics and increasing life expectancy by 50 percent.


Today, with increasing pollution and new regulations, it has become more and more challenging to meet all of the requirements for safe disinfection with just one treatment. Using multiple technologies for disinfection in a layered approach is often necessary.


For example, a surface water potable water treatment facility may use chlorine dioxide at the head of the plant to gain disinfection credit without creating chlorine by-products, then apply chlorine to the finished water to maintain a residual through the distribution system. Read more about the many means of disinfection below.


Choosing the Right Disinfection

Today, there are several effective technologies available for the disinfection of water and wastewater, and each has its advantages and disadvantages. Understanding the treatment process goals is fundamental to choosing the right disinfection option.


Chlorine Gas

Used in water treatment plants since the early 1900s, chlorine gas is essentially pure chlorine, typically delivered in pressurized 150-pound cylinders, one-ton containers or rail cars directly to the site in a usable form. It is generally the most cost-effective, efficient and easiest method of disinfecting with chlorine.


Vacuum-operated Solution Feed Systems

These systems enhance the safety of feeding chlorine gas. The control modes used for this process are typically flow proportioning, residual control, or compound loop (flow plus residual).


Commercial Sodium Hypochlorite

Commercial sodium hypochlorite is a liquid disinfection that is manufactured at approximately 12.5 to 15 percent chlorine by weight with a pH greater than 11. The delivery systems for it include the storage tank, chemical dosing pumping system with associated valves and piping, and a control method such as flow control, residual control, or compound loop (flow + residual). 


Classified as a hazardous chemical, bulk sodium hypochlorite requires secondary containment and hazardous chemical manifests. Although more expensive (per pound) than chlorine gas or on-site hypochlorite generation, sodium hypochlorite is considered easier to maintain and operate. 


Bulk sodium hypochlorite concentration decays over time, and higher volumes are required to achieve the same result. Chlorate as a by-product is a concern for the expected new MCL of 210 ppb.


On-site Hypochlorite Generation (OSHG)

An OSHG system uses electrolysis to generate a nominal 0.8 percent solution of hypochlorite on-site as needed. A dilute brine solution passes through an electrolytic cell, converting the chloride ion from the salt to hypochlorite. 


The process typically uses three pounds of salt, two kW hours of electricity and 15 gallons of water to produce a pound of chlorine in 15 gallons of solution, the equivalent of the active chlorine present in one gallon of 12.5 percent bulk hypochlorite, or one pound of chlorine gas. OSHG systems have moderate maintenance requirements, producing chlorine at about 25 percent, 60 percent of the cost of bulk sodium hypochlorite per pound of chlorine produced, and is considered safer than transporting gas under pressure.


Chlorine Dioxide

Chlorine dioxide is generated by mixing acid or chlorine gas and sodium chlorite, with ejector water as an entrained gas to form a solution that is applied to the process. Because it cannot be compressed and liquefied for transportation, it is generated on-site close to its intended use. It is a strong oxidant and disinfectant across a wide pH range for both water and wastewater and does not react with ammonia to become a weaker disinfectant. This is important for plants where the water has a high ammonia content, often resulting in lower operating costs. Chlorine dioxide is frequently used in water treatment plants as a primary disinfectant early in the treatment process to prevent the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs).


On-site Chlorine Generation (OSCG)

Similar to OSHG, an OSCG system uses brine solution and membrane electrolysis to produce higher concentrations of hypochlorite up to 12 percent of chlorine gas, which is vacuum-educted to the point of application. On-site chlorine generation reduces transportation and delivery hazards associated with shipping commercial hypochlorite and eliminates transportation safety concerns of chlorine gas delivered in liquid (bulk) containers.


Ozone

Made of three oxygen atoms (O3), ozone is a powerful oxidant. It deteriorates rapidly to oxygen and is usually generated on-site using either air or pure oxygen. Ozone does not produce disinfection by-products (DBPs) and can be used as a primary disinfectant for water treatment to reduce THMs and DBPs. 


Ozone also is used for taste, odor and color control in potable water treatment, as well as Fe/Mn removal when THMs are a concern. Further, it is used to remove micropollutants, including pesticides, at disinfection dosages. Ozonation is typically not used for primary disinfection of wastewater effluent with high levels of suspended solids (SS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand, or total organic carbon since the cost of treatment can be relatively high in capital and power intensiveness.


Ultraviolet Light (UV)

Ultraviolet light energy at 254 nm wavelength is absorbed by the DNA of a microorganism, stopping the reproductive process and rendering it non-infective and microbiologically dead. UV systems operate at varying pressure and output, depending on the application, target pathogen and water quality involved. 


UV has most recently been used to treat wastewater effluent since regulations require more stringent chlorine discharge limits for various receiving streams. UV is effective in removing chlorine-resistant pathogens from drinking water, including Cryptosporidium, Giardia and various viruses that have proven to be resistant to traditional disinfection methods such as chlorine and filtration.


Calcium Hypochlorite

A solid tablet, calcium hypochlorite, is typically 60 percent available chlorine delivered via a tablet-feed system or a dilution tank in which the calcium hypochlorite is dissolved into a solution then dosed with a metering pump. It is commonly used in swimming pools. 


Because calcium hypochlorite is expensive per pound of chlorine and is difficult to dose in larger facilities accurately, it is typically used for smaller remote plants where other methods of chlorine feed are not feasible.


Chloramines

In the presence of ammonia, chlorine combines with the ammonia to form either mono-chloramine, di-chloramine, or tri-chloramine, depending on the ammonia-to-chlorine ratio. Mono-chloramine is a relatively weak disinfectant but maintains a very stable long-lasting residual in water and is therefore often used as a secondary disinfection method in systems with a long water age. 


Chloramine systems can be challenging to control, and operators must carefully monitor and maintain their dosing systems for maximum accuracy. Peracetic Acid (PAA) Peracetic acid (CH3CO3H) — also known as peroxyacetic acid, or PA — is a liquid that functions as a strong oxidizing agent, has an acrid odor and can also be used as a disinfectant. 


PAA is generally commercially available as an equilibrium mixture of 12-15 percent peracetic acid and 18-23 percent hydrogen peroxide. PAA is available in 330-gallon totes and, in bulk, requires stainless steel piping and is administered using a metering pump. Since PAA is a highly-effective bactericide, does not form DBPs, has a minimal dependency on pH and does not leave a residual, it has received significant consideration for the disinfection of wastewater effluent.


Treatments will be different for every situation and plant size. But, with a well-defined treatment process goal and experienced, knowledgeable partners working together, developing the most effective, simple and budget-conscious disinfection plan can truly be a painless process.


Choosing the Right Treatment System 

Whether it’s a new project or an upgrade to an existing plan, choosing the right water treatment system takes careful research and planning. Find out if an on-site sodium hypochlorite system is right for you. Contact Aquatick by JalAqua for additional product info or connect with a regional distributor today. 


We at Aquatick by Jal Aqua International, are Calcium Hypochlorite manufacturers, suppliers, importer & traders from India based. We have the best quality of Calcium Hypochlorite, with very competitive price. Our Calcium Hypochlorite is made with very high quality raw materials using all quality standards of the Industry.


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September 28

the top 3 renewable energy sources

Electrical Engineers are in demand now more than e [...]

Masters Electrical engineering degrees one can pursue are a Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering, a Master of Engineering or Master of Science in Electrical Engineering, or a Doctorate of Philosophy in Engineering. Specific skills in each industry where electrical engineers are employed will be necessary as well, and can vary greatly from one field to the next.